At COP13 in Bali, 36 developed countries in the contact group (plus the EU as a contracting party to the European Union) agreed to increase their emissions by 10% for Iceland; However, EU Member States each have individual commitments for much larger increases (up to 27%) are allowed for some of the least developed EU countries (see Kyoto Protocol – Increased greenhouse gas emissions since 1990).  The reduction restrictions expired in 2013. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) has made a number of projections on what could be the future increase in global average temperature.  IPCC projections are “basic projections,” which means that they assume that no future efforts will be made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC forecasts cover the period from the beginning of the 21st century to the end of the 21st century.   The “probable” zone (which, based on the opinion of IPCC experts, has a likely probability of more than 66%), is a projected increase in global average temperature in the 21st quarter. Century between 1.1 and 6.4 degrees Celsius. The report notes that limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius would require “rapid and extensive” transitions in countries, energy, industry, buildings, transport and cities. Net global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are expected to decrease by about 45% by 2030 from 2010 levels and reach “net zero” by 2050. This means that all remaining emissions must be offset by the removal of CO2 from the air. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, has affected international consensus on the issue of climate change.
During the summit, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was established, which was originally signed by 166 countries and finally entered into force on 21 March 1994. To date, it has been ratified by 197 countries. Gupta et al. (2007)  described the Kyoto commitments as “modest” in the first round and said they were implementing the effectiveness of the treaty. It was suggested that subsequent Kyoto commitments could be made more effective by measures to reduce emissions more, as well as by implementing policies to a greater share of global emissions.  In 2008, countries with a Kyoto ceiling accounted for less than one-third of annual global carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion.  The main objective of the Kyoto Protocol is to control emissions of major anthropogenic greenhouse gases (emitted by humans) in a way that reflects the underlying national differences in greenhouse gas emissions, prosperity and reduction capacity.  The treaty respects the fundamental principles agreed in the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention.  In accordance with the treaty, schedule I parties that have ratified the treaty must have complied with their obligations under the greenhouse gas emission restrictions set for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) in 2012.